The Cytochrome Oxidase locus
The Cytochrome Oxidase 1 (COI) mitochondrial DNA locus
The circular mitochondrial genome is maternally inherited via the oocyte cytoplasm, and lacks recombination. It therefore diverges at a greater rate
than nuclear loci, making it a good marker both for maternal patterns of inheritance, and for analysis of sub-species (population) evolution. The Cytochrome Oxidase
1 gene transcribes one subunit of the multimeric cytochrome oxidase enzyme complex. COI was sequenced relatively late in Gyrodactylus, and primers were first published by Meinila et al. (2002).
This locus has since become very important in tracking local evolution in the G. salaris complex.
A word of warning: The scale of variation in COI (24% variation between G. salaris and G. lavareti) is such that not all of the variation will be selectively neutral. Mutations at the second base
which affect amino acid sequence are already known, and it is likely that some of these mutants affect COI enzyme activity. This is a subject which has not been examined but which deserves more study. Furthermore,
given what we know about reproductive biology in Gyrodactylus, heteroplasmy is possible, which could result in an individual aquiring more than one mitochondrial haplotype.
Meinila's (2002) primers for COI:
5' TAATCGGCGGGTTCGGTAA 3'
5' GAACCATGTATCGTGTAGCA 3'
5' TAATTGGTGGGTTTGGTAA 3'
5' AGCTACCACGAACCATGTAT 3'
3 mins 95°C
95°C 1 min
50°C 1 min
72°C 1.5 mins
for 35 cycles.
then 7 mins at 72°C to complete extension.
Hansen et al. (2002) used these primers or a two additional sets:
Amplification conditions were not given.
Hansen, H., Bachmann, L. & Bakke, T.A. (2002). Mitochondrial DNA variation of Gyrodactylus spp. (Monogenea,
Gyrodactylidae) populations infecting Atlantic salmon, grayling,and rainbow trout in Norway and SwedenInternational Journal of Parasitology 33 1471-1478.
Meinila,M., Kuusela, J. Zietara, M. & Lumme, J. (2000).Primers for amplifying 820 bp of highly polymorphic
mitochondrial COI gene of Gyrodactylus salaris Hereditas 137 72-74.